Difference between static and dynamic routing

Static vs dynamic routing

The difference between static and dynamic routing is how the routing entries are entered into the system. Routing in computer networks refers to the process of correctly transferring packets over computer networks, so that the packets eventually reach the right destination. Routing is of two main types: static routing and dynamic routing. In static routing, the network administrator manually defines the routing entries in the routing tables. This is where it manually puts the entries that specify the path to follow for a packet to reach a certain destination. On the other hand, in dynamic routing, routing entries are generated automatically using routing protocols automatically, without any intervention from the network administrator. The algorithms used are complex, but for today's large and often changing networks, dynamic routing is better.

What is static routing ??

In static routing, the network administrator manually enters the routing entries to the routing table of each router and computer. A routing entry is an entry that specifies the type of gateway to which a packet must be passed before it reaches a certain destination. On each router or computer, there is a table called routing table containing several routing entries. For a small, simple network, it would be possible to enter static routes to each router, but this becomes too tedious with the increase in size and complexity of the network. In addition, if a change in a network affects routing (for example, if a router is down or a new router is added), the routing entries must be changed manually. Thus, in static routing, the management of the routing tables must also be performed by the administrator. The advantage of static routing is that there is not much processing. The only action is to perform a search on the routing table for a specific destination. Routing hardware should therefore not require sophisticated processors, which makes them cheaper.

What is dynamic routing ??

In dynamic routing, the routing entries are generated automatically by routing algorithms. Therefore, the administrator does not have to make manual changes. Routing algorithms are complex mathematical algorithms in which routers publish their links and using this information, the most ideal routes are calculated. There are different methods depending on how the advertising and calculations are done.

Link state algorithms and distance vector algorithms are two of these famous methods. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is an algorithm that follows a link state algorithm and RIP (Routing Information Protocol) is an algorithm that uses the distance vector algorithm. Dynamic routing is ideal for large modern networks that involve many changes during operation.

In dynamic routing, the routing tables are updated periodically. Therefore, if a change occurs, the new routing tables will be formed based on them. Another advantage is that in dynamic routing, depending on congestion, routing is adapted. In other words, if a certain path is too congested, the routing protocols would identify them and these paths would be avoided in future routing tables. The disadvantage of dynamic routing is that the calculations are complex and require considerable processing. Therefore, the cost of such routing equipment would be expensive.

What is the difference between static routing and dynamic routing?


  • In static routing, the network administrator manually enters the entries in the routing tables. However, in dynamic routing, the network administrator does not have to enter entries because these are generated automatically.
  • In dynamic routing, routing entries are generated using complex routing algorithms. In static routing, no algorithm of this type is involved.
  • For static routing, the action consists simply of carrying out a search on a table and therefore does not need any treatment, which makes the material less expensive. However, dynamic routing algorithms involve a lot of computation. Therefore, this requires a lot of processing capacity. As a result, the equipment would be expensive.
  • In static routing, routers do not advertise or broadcast any information on links to other routers. However, in dynamic routing, the tables are generated using the information announced by the routers.
  • In dynamic routing, the routing tables are regularly updated and are therefore sensitive to changes in the network. However, in static routing, the network administrator will have to make the changes manually.
  • Static routing can be used for small networks. However, for large networks, static routing cannot be maintained and dynamic routing is therefore used.
  • In static routing, in the event of a link failure, communication would be affected until the link is re-established or the administrator manually configures another path. But, in the case of dynamic routing, the routing table would be updated with an alternative path.
  • Static routing is very secure because no advertising is sent. However, in dynamic routing, broadcasts and advertisements are less secure

Summary of Static vs dynamic routing

In computer networks, routing is one of the most important elements for the proper functioning of a computer network. Static routing is the process by which the administrator must manually configure the routing entries. On the other hand, in dynamic routing, routing tables are generated automatically using algorithms called routing algorithms such as RIP and OSPF. For large complex networks, the use of static routing is very tedious and it is therefore necessary to opt for dynamic routing. The advantage of dynamic routing is that the routing tables will be generated periodically and that they would therefore be compatible with any modification of the network.

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